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Title: Rev J G Mulholland, Windsor, N.S. to Rev G Kirkpatrick, Craigs
CollectionIrish Emigration Database
FileMulholland, Rev John G/11
SenderRev. John G. Mulholland
Sender Gendermale
Sender Occupationclergyman
Sender Religionunknown
OriginWindsor, Nova Scotia, Canada
DestinationBallymena, Co. Antrim, N.Ireland
RecipientRev. George Kirkpatrick
Recipient Gendermale
SourceD 1424/11/1; Purchased From Mr John A. Gamble, 44 Taunton Avenue, Belfast 15. #TYPE EMG Letter From Reverend John G. Mulholland, Collegiate School, Windsor, Nova Scotia, Canada, to Reverend George Kirkpatrick, Craigs Rectory, Ballymena, [County Antrim?],
ArchivePublic Record Office Northern Ireland.
Doc. No.9004022
Partial Date
Doc. TypeEMG
Log25:04:1990 SS created 07:08:1990 MC input 09:08:19
Word Count1776
TranscriptThe Revd [Reverend?]
George Kirkpatrick
Craigs Rectory
J.G.M. Ballymena

31 March 1849
Revd John G. Mullholland

from Windsor
Nova Scotia

Collegiate School, Windsor - N.S. [NOVA SCOTIA]
March 21 1849

My Dear Gr [George?] Kirkpatrick,
A letter from the "far west" will
not be unacceptable to one residing in the "Emerald Isle".
You have in this heard [of our?] safe arrival & settlement in
this colony, & i am [I am?] happy to say we are succeeding as well
as I had anticipated, [though?] we had difficulties to contend
with as strangers to the people. These are by degrees
wearing away & I trust in couse [course?] of this year the school
will be as flourishing as in years gone by. The climate
of this country is very healthy - I have not had a cold or
pain in my chest since I came here. Tho'[though?] cold especially
during Jany [January?] & Feby [February?] - it is dry. [so?] now the
snow is in some places, 6 feet or 8 feet deep - but owing to the
dryness of the air it does not feel so cold as in England
during the snow season. Last wek [week?] we had a fall of
snow some of 8 inches, & strange [to say?] tho [though?] the beams of the
sun in a beautifully blue unclosed sky are shining all
dylong [day long?] very little thaw takes place. There has been
sleighing since 26 Decr. [December?] i.e. nearly 3 months of
continuous frost & snow with only one day's rain. Sleighing
is the most pleasent mode of travelling - so smooth
& easy for a horse. one horse in a sled or sleigh
can draw 4 times as much with greater [ease?] as he
could do in a [cart?] or carrige [carriage?]. When one gets on
so he has not far to fall & the snow is a soft bed to
fall on. An upset is of frequent occurence and so I
mention it; for instance the Mail-sleigh with 4 or
6 horses (here they drive six in hand) got 6 upsets in
45 miles from Halifax to this:- This country is thinly populated -
perhaps the whole of N.S. [Nova Soctia]- as large or larger than
England does not contain as many inhabitants
as Manchester. Halifax is a flourishing town of good
trade. Cunard the contractor & 3/4 owner of them mail
Steamers lives there & is a very wealthy man. But you
may imagine the value of property in Halifax [when?]I
tell you building [ground sells?] as high as in Sackville st [street?]
[O'connell st?] Dublin. It is a pity the houses - fine well built &
architectural houses - are [made?] of wood, as fires
frequently occur. St.John N.B. [New Brunswick] 200 miles
fr[om?] Windsor - suffered severely last month by two
fires - which destroyed nearly 6000 - or 10000 worth
property. Windsor is delightfully situated & is the
[country?] seat- or the Cheltenham for Halifax.
- The parishes are rather extensive - What wd.[would?]
[Dominic Moon?] think of one 30 miles long by 20 broad
such are many here- I think his clerical person
would be the [worse?] of the [wear?]. A priest has seen
double this size & some treble. The priest at
Windsor (who wishes to be on good terms with me as
being a country man) has to go often in his tours
80 miles. - Most of the people here are from the
North of Ireland - McHeffeys (Mehaffy Hibernia) -
Dills &c are from Ballymena & Coleraine-
some from Crumlin & Antrim. They first landed, as is
general for North of Ireland emigrants, at St. John's
N.B. [New Brunswick] & then came in this direction. Some of them
are very wealthy now. They take great pleasure in
reading an Irish paper. And as Miss [Cunningham?]
kindly sends on a [Coleraine?] paper, I circulate
it among them. Emigration is a difficult part
to speak upon. I should wish I could say something
satisfactory on this point in order that you might
communicate it & those who feel inclined to seek
for support in a land less distracted than by our
poor native land. I can only speak of Nova Scotia
& New Brunswick. What [?] I have
strictly investigated. When a workman or labourer
comes to either of these provinces he may get work
almost regularly from April 15 to nr.[November] 25 perhaps
later at 3/6 to 5/- per diem currency i.e. 2/- British
being equal to 2/6 currency in dry season he can
get £5 per month = £4 British. If honest & industrious
he can get 24 to 26 currency per annum
paid monthly - (the usual engagement) & his board
in a family. I pay mine 24 & his board & I could
not get one for less, & I must have a man to cut
& chop the wood for the fires & attend the cows
& farm of 18 acres which are attached to the establishment.
Again during the winter i.e. from Nr. [November] 25
to April 15 a labourer may or may not get work -
It requires tact & skill to chop & fell in the woods
& as a man is paid by measurement A native
can do more in 1/4 day than a new comer can do
in a day conseqently can earn wages - the general
way a colonial - a poor man I mean - acts
is this - he works for others from April to Nr.[November] - he
gets a bit of land & during the winter clears it
that is cuts down the trees to a level with the
snow which may be 2-3 or 5 feet high - he then
leaves the stumps & when the snow has gone off he
scrapes or tears ruffly [roughly] up the ground between the stumps
sows his grain & leaves it till [until?] Autumn-This is
what is called clearing ground, but the stumps begin
3 to 6 or 8 years before they are rotted when a fire
is put in them, & what remains is easily torn up
by leavers [levers?] & crow-bars - These appeared strange
to me at first but even now I am become accustomed
to them & think nothing of seeing whole
acres on fire, by which it sometimes happens
the fire spreads, [desolates?] for miles - Travelling
from here to Halifax there are more than 2000 acres
of bear [bare?] poles sticking out of the ground to a great
height, so caused by the spreading of fire. I think
thru [through?] the south of the states - New Orleans is the best
place, but not by any means New York or Philadelphia
which are overtaken already, & those
who have been induced to go hence to them have
returned. All work is done cheaply there & consequently
cant afford high wages - besides an
ordinary laboring man can do only in the fields
& must move backward - but how do this if he
have not the means - I fear too many leave Ireland
expecting people to be on the quays offering them
work on landing whereas the poor people have
to look for work & wait even for it. The very day
we landed at St John a vessel full - 300 passengers
landed, & they thought they had nothing to do
but go to work - so far from it for weeks they did
not get work, & a clergyman Dr Gray told me
afterwards - a subscription had to be raised
for the poorest & those who could went off to
the states in search of work & money. But again if
a man can work & is willing to work & not be contaminated
or enter into leagues with the workman
throughout the provinces for high wages, he will
do very well. I shall be very happy to find out & communicate
any information I can if it be desired [for?]
persons about to emigrate - the advice I would
venture to give viz - Let them choose whether they
will work in the agricultural parts or in the towns
for they are totally distinct & different. Labor
in the country is indeed hard, & owing to the long
winter, when no farm work can be done, the spring
work is urged on with severity to keep pace with
the rapid growth. Now not a blade of grass is
in the fields & a month or 6 weeks hence & all will
be luxuriant, & every flower in bloom.
I fear I have by this time wearied your patience,
but I feel a pleasure in writing home - for Britain
is always called home even by Yankee who
has a love for her - it seems as if I were speaking to dear
friends. I am as busy as I can be from 6 in the morning
till 4 - & I keep myself as close to study as possible
for at times my thought turn to the land I have
left & the friends perhaps never again to be seen -
I can often picture to my mind - Fortescue -[?]
Craigs & White park - I fancy I am not so far away
& that such a wide wild waste of ocean rolls
between us - As the steamer comes in sight of Halifax
& as the express hastens thro'[through] Windsor my heart
often beats for a letter or even a paper from old
Ireland - No one can feel as the emigrant
for the land of his birth. Tho [Though] I have many friends here
yet - there is no place like home. No day seems so
bad as the Sunday - & why I know not- except that my
mind is less active, & the solemnity of the day calls up
past actions, & causes me to wander to the churches
[?] which those who are dearer & nearer to us [?]
If a spare hour hanging heavily on y.[your?] hands I would
be very glad to hear from you - believe me none will welcome
a letter more - give our [?] & best wishes
to Mr Kirkpatrick & sons - & to Mr.Moore - Please remember
me to Dennis Wallace I hope he continues a good Protestant
Will you tell Miss Cunningham I gladly & gratefully recognize her
handwriting on the papers, that after Easter I shall give her a long
kindest regards - also Mr & Mrs Beggs & any of the
sons on his way to New York should call at Halifax
I shall be happy to see him here. Only 45 miles distant
which can be easily got over. with every wish for
yr.[your] happiness & that of your family
Believe me to remain ever
Yours very faithfully
John G. Mulholland
The Rev.Geo.[George] Kirkpatrick, Craigs Rectory.